|Last updated: 25/05/2013|
The methodology and results reported in this study form a first comprehensive and integrated global ecological–economic assessment of the impact of climate change on agro-ecosystems in the context of the world food and agricultural system. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) have developed a comprehensive methodology based on environmental principles, referred to as the agro-ecological zones methodology. The GIS-based framework combines crop modeling and environmental matching procedures to identify crop-specific environmental limitations under various levels of inputs and management conditions. This has facilitated comprehensive and geographically detailed assessments of climatechange impacts and agricultural vulnerability.
Food production must adapt in the face of climate change. In Europe, projected vulnerability of food production to climate change is particularly high in Mediterranean regions. Increasing agricultural diversity has been suggested as an adaptation strategy, but empirical evidence is lacking. The authors analyzed the relationship between regional farm diversity and the effects of climate variability on regional wheat productivity. An extensive data set with information from more than 50 000 farms from 1990 to 2003 was analyzed, along with observed weather data. The results suggest that the diversity in farm size and intensity, particularly high in Mediterranean regions, reduces vulnerability of regional wheat yields to climate variability. Accordingly, increasing regional farm diversity can be a strategy through which regions in Europe can adapt to unfavorable conditions, such as higher temperatures and associated droughts. (complete article can be found at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss1/ art38/)
The legal and policy implications of the impacts on biodiversity of climate change, as well as of mitigation and adaptation measures, have been progressively addressed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). This process experienced a steep acceleration at the tenth meeting of the CBD Conference of the Parties (COP X - 18-29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan) that resulted in a host of unprecedented and far-reaching decisions related to climate change. This article will first discuss the increasing understanding of the links between global biodiversity loss and climate change, and then review the main climate change-related outcomes of the CBD COP X. It will conclude by discussing the legal relevance of this significant rapprochement of international biodiversity law to climate change law.
This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and recommendations of a workshop, co-hosted by the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture and the Norwegian Ministry for Agriculture and Food, that was held in Bogor, Indonesia, from 9-11 March 2010. The workshop was organized in order to provide an arena for informal discussions on the implementation of Non-Monetary Benefit Sharing in relation to the Treaty, as implementation and follow up have been somewhat lacking in this respect until now. Non-monetary benefit Sharing as it is dealt with under article 13 of the Treaty is related to the realization of Farmers' Rights since benefit sharing is also central to article 9 on Farmers' Rights.
This paper considers what is involved in ensuring that biodiversity for food and agriculture contributes to improved food security and to feeding the world in the coming decades within a framework of enhanced agricultural efficiency and sustainability. Starting from the perspective of the World Food Summit held at FAO in November 2009, the paper summarizes some major changes (and their drivers) expected over the next 40 years that are likely to present the most pressing challenges to agricultural production, global food security and environmental quality. It considers the essential characteristics or properties needed by sustainable agriculture and presents examples of how biodiversity is contributing to low-input, sustainable and productive systems. It offers a perspective on the fundamental change in thinking needed that is already at least partly under way. Finally, it outlines a range of policy initiatives, market interventions and other actions that can facilitate wide adoption of the required approaches.
In September 2007, a group of experts from the genetic conservation, climate science, agricultural development, and plant genetics and breeding communities met at the Rockefeller Foundation Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy, to initiate a discussion about the management of global crop genetic resources in the face of climate change. This document provides an overview on the major topics under discussion. The focus was on global food security, and much of the discussion therefore centered on malnourished populations, the majority of whom depend to some extent on agriculture for their livelihoods. In particular, attention was directed toward two key regions of food insecurity: South Asia and African continent.
Report of the “Workshop on Genetic resources in the northern parts of Europe: current status and the future in relation to major environmental changes" held in September 2006 in Finland This workshop was organized as one of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources cross-cutting activities. Eleven participants representing eight countries with territories above 64ºN were brought together to discuss the consequences of global climate change on plant genetic resources.
This paper is organized in five sections: (a) section one reviews the latest findings on impacts of key climate change variables on plant function and farm-level production systems, including changes in elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, and precipitation patterns; (b) section two presents an analysis of the repercussions of these local impacts on regional and global food productions; (c) section three presents a discussion of the adaptation strategies that are necessary to minimize the expected negative impacts on agro-ecosystems, as well as capitalize on potential new opportunities for promoting greater resilience and sustainable production; (d) section four identifies the important synergies that exist between adaptation strategies and mitigation options, such as those leading to carbon sequestration; (e) section five presents recommendations on some practical and operational steps needing to be implemented now, from the perspective of short- and long-term sustainable rural development and agricultural planning.
This book presents the results of a partnership between FAO, the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme and the University of the South Pacific. Chapter 1 presents the issues and requirements that Pacific islands face regarding the impacts of climate change on food sources and water. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 offer national assessments in, respectively, Vanuatu, the Republic of Marshall Islands and the Cook Islands, including recommendations for national strategies to mitigate, adapt and respond to the challenges posed by climate variability on agriculture and food security. Chapter 5 presents the report of a regional expert group of concerned partners which was formed to consider and regionalize the commitments made by the Rome Declaration of the High-Level Conference on World Food Security: the Challenges of Climate change and Bioenergy, 3–5 June 2008. Chapter 6 presents the full text of the Rome Declaration.
The impact of climate change on production of various crops varies markedly depending mainly on the region, growing season, the crops and their temperature thresholds. Cereals, oilseed and protein crops depend on temperature and, in many cases, day length, to reach maturity. Temperature increase may shorten the length of the growing period for these crops and, in the absence of compensatory management responses, reduce yields and change the area of cultivation by rendering unsuitable some currently cultivated areas and suitable, others not currently cultivated. In this paper, the Ecocrop model is used to project the impact of climate change on selected crops and areas that are currently suitable for growing those crops. Further, it is discussed the need for increased attention on breeding varieties that are tolerant of new climate conditions using the rich genetic diversity available in wild species and landraces, and incorporating local knowledge to hone selection of promising varieties for breeding.